Section – A Reading
Passage – 1
In small-town, there lived a beautiful family of five members including an old man who was the head of
the family and his only son, daughter-in-law, and two grandchildren. The family had not lot of fun and
enjoyed life to the fullest. As a family, they always had dinner together, every day.
However, as days passed by, the health of the old gradually weakened. His vision becomes very poor, he
his hands and legs started trembling.
One day, while serving dinner, the old man whose legs and hands shivered and who couldn’t see
properly split the food on the table. With his trembling hands, he wasn’t able to eat properly. He let the
glass of milk fall on the table cloth. His son and daughter-in-law were completely annoyed, as he messed
up the dinner. It was repeated for the next time as the old man couldn’t help himself. His son was irritated
and his wife said, “I can’t bear this anyone. He spoils our dinner time. We should do something about
it.” He agreed. Soon they set up a new table and chair in the corner of the hall and made him sit there
to eat food. The old man wasn’t able to hold the glass or plate and he broke a few pieces of utensils. His
son gave the old man a wooden bowl so it wouldn’t break. While the rest of the family seemed to enjoy
their meals, the old man was in tears as he had to eat his food alone. The old man would often recollect
happy memories of family and could barely tolerate his current situation.
Days passed and the old man died quietly. After his funeral, they were cleaning the house when his five-
year-old grandson Vikram and his elder sister Zoya began to search for something. This was noticed by
their father who asked his children. ‘What are you searching for?’ Zoya replied, “The wooden bowl in
which grandpa ate food !’ Curiously he asked, ‘But why?’ To which Zoya thoughtfully replied, ‘ We want
to preserve it in memory Grandpal!’ The children found the bowl and keep it in a safe place. Then Vikram
asked his father, ‘Did can you buy one more bowl like this?’. Surprised by the question, he asked, ‘Why
son?’ To this Zoya prompted replied, ‘See we have only bowl. When you and Momma get old, how will
we feed you both with one bowl? So we want you to buy another one for Momma ?’ The elders realized
their mistake, but it was a bit late in the day.
1. Which of the following statements is TRUE in the context of the story?
a)The old man’s daughter-i-law took very good care of him till his last breath.
b) Vikram and Zoya loved and respected the elderly.
c) The old man had left the huge property for his only son after his death.
d) The old man was eating food in a wooden bowl.
2. Which of the following qualities described the old man’s daughter-in-law the best in the context
of the story?
3. According to the story the old man food alone in the corner because _________
a) He didn’t enjoy having food with his family anymore.
b) He did not want the dinner table to make messy.
c) His grandchildren would make a noise which he couldn’t bear.
d) Other than those given in the options.
4. As mentioned in the story, Vikram requested his father to get another wooden bowl because ___
a) He wanted to replace old utensils with new wooden ones.
b) It was his grandfather’s last wish and he wanted to fulfill it.
c) He wanted it for giving food to his mother when she became old.
d) He was fond of wooden vessels.
5. Which of the following is most nearly the opposite in meaning to the word “PRESERVE” as used
in the passage?
6. Which of the following correctly explains the phrase, ‘Late in the day’ as used in the story?
a) ‘In the early afternoon
b) Too old to be useful
c) Too new to be used
d) Too late to be of any use
7. Which of the following can be an appropriate title for the story?
a) Never Hurt Your grandfather
b) The ill grandfather
c) The wooden Bowl
d) The wise parents
8. Which of the following is the most nearly the same in meaning to the word ‘RECOLLECT” as used
in the story?
The village school was located in a prominent place where apart from the school, there were a few
shops, a small temple and a government dispensary. The headmaster of the school was a learned and
scholarly man loved by all. The dispensary was looked after by a doctor and a male nurse. The doctor
attended the dispensary very punctually and used to retire to his residence after the duty hours and
never allowed anyone to visit his residence after the duty hours.
The school was housed in a dilapidated building and very often the headmaster used to take the children
out to the nearby garden where they could play and take the children out to the nearby garden where
they could play and take part in various sports and games under the able supervision of the headmaster.
One day a stray dog entered the garden when the children were playing. One of them pelted stone at
the dog and it started barking and all of a sudden became boisterous and bit a child in the leg. The boy
was very badly hurt and his leg started bleeding. The children who by this time became panicky rushed
to the headmaster together with a few students took the child to the nearby dispensary and went to his
The headmaster took the injured child to the residence of the doctor and knocked at the door of the
doctor for help. But the doctor refused to open the door and make it clear that he would not attend to
anyone howsoever serious he may be during his leisure hours. However, the headmaster continued to
knock at the door, and finally, the doctor opened the door when he saw the headmaster trembling with
fear and the student crying in agony and pain.
The doctor mellowed down now and took the child to the dispensary for bandaging the wound and
giving necessary injections and medicines. The doctor was impressed by the dedication and sincerity of
the headmaster. He realized his folly and decided to attend to the needy and sick even during his leisure hours.
1. Where was the village school located?
a) It was located in a dense forest
b) It was located near the marketplace
c) It was located in a building that needed repairs
d) It was located near a garden
2. How did the doctor spend his time after duty hours?
a) He played cards with the neighbors.
b) He rested at home and disallowed visitors.
c) He slept and dreamt
d) He read spiritual and religious books.
3. What did the headmaster do?
a) He took the children out to the nearby garden where they could play.
b) He went to the nearby garden and sat there for hours together
c) He discussed politics with the teachers
d) He went around the school housed in a dilapidated building.
4. What made the dog bark at the children?
a) They did not give the dog anything to eat.
b) The dog saw another dog in the garden.
c) The dog was feeling hungry and wanted something to eat.
d) One of the boys did some mischief to the dog.
5. What happened to the boy bitten by the dog?
a) The boy started laughing
b) The boy became unconscious
c) The boy was very badly hurt and his leg started bleeding
d) The boy started pelting stones at the dog.
6. How did the other children react?
a) The children can away from the scene.
b)The children should for help
c) The children shouted for help
d) The children became panicky and rushed to the headmaster.
7. What happened when the headmaster took the child to the dispensary?
a) The doctor had left the dispensary and gone home.
b) The doctor started talking pleasantly with the headmaster
c) The doctor ordered a cup of tea for the headmaster and sweets for the children
d) The doctor welcomed the headmaster to his room
8. What promoted the doctor to open his door?
a) The doctor’s desire for a stroll in the garden
b) The doctor thought his friend was knocking at the door
c)The doctor’s longing for fresh air
d)The continued knock at the door by the headmaster.
Philosophy of Education is a label applied to the study of the purpose, process, nature, and ideals of
education. It can be considered a branch of both philosophy and education. Education can be defined as
the teaching and learning of specific skills, and the imparting of knowledge, judgment, and wisdom,
and is something broader than the societal Institution of education we often speak of.
Many educationalists consider it a weak and wooly field, too far removed from the practical applications
of the real world to be useful. But philosophers dating back to Plato and the Ancient Greeks have given
the area much thought and emphasis, and there is little doubt that their work has helped shape the
practice of education over the millennia.
Plato is the earliest important educational thinker, and education is an essential element in “The republic
“ ( his most important work on philosophy and political theory, written around 360 B.C). In it, he
advocates some rather extreme methods: removing children from their mothers’ care and raising them
as wards of the state, and differentiating children suitable to the various castes, the highest receiving
the most education, so that they could act as guardians of the city and care for the less able. He believed
that education should be holistic, including facts, skills, physical discipline, music, and art. Plato believed
that talent and intelligence are not disturbed genetically and thus are found in children born to all classes,
although his proposed system of selective public education for an educated minority of the population
does not really follow a democratic model.
Aristotle considered human nature, habit, and reason to be equally important forces to be cultivated in
education, the ultimate aim of which should be to produce good and virtuous citizens. He proposed that
teachers lead their students systematically, and that repetition be used as a key tool to develop good
habits, unlike Socrates emphasis on questioning his listeners to bring out their own ideas. He emphasized
the practical aspects of subjects taught, among which he explicitly mentions reading, writing, mathematics, music, physical education, literature, history, and a wide range of sciences, as well as play,
which he also considered important.
During the Medieval period, the idea of Perennialism was first formulated by St. Thomas Aquinas in his artwork “De Magistro”. Perennialism holds that one should teach those things deemed to be of
everlasting importance to all people everywhere, namely principles and reasoning, not just facts ( which
are apt to change over time), and that one should teach about people, not machines or techniques. It
was originally religious in nature, and it was only much later that a theory of secular perennialism
During the Renaissance, the French skeptic Michel de Montaigne ( 1533-1592) was one of the first to
critically look at education. Unusually for his first time, Montaigne was willing to question the
the conventional wisdom of the period, calling into question the whole edifice of the educational system,
and the implicit assumption that university-educated philosophers were necessarily wiser than
1. What is the difference between the approaches of Socrates and Aristotle?
a) Aristotle felt the need for rote-learning: Socrates emphasized dialogic learning.
b) There was no difference
c) Aristotle emphasized the importance of paying attention to human nature; Socrates
d) Aristotle felt the need for repetition to develop good habits in students; Socrates felt the
need to be constantly questioned.
2. Why do educationists consider philosophy a ‘weak and woolly’ field?
a) It is not practically applicable.
b) Its theoretical concepts are easily understood.
c) It is irrelevant for education.
d) None of the above
3. The term ‘Perennialism’, in the context of the given comprehension passage refers to something
a) Which is quite unnecessary.
b) Which is of ceaseless importance
c) Which is abstract and theoretical
d) Which is existed in the past and no longer exists now.
4. Were Plato’s beliefs about education democratic?
a) He believed that only the rich have the right
b) He believed people are democratic
c) He believed that only a select few are meant to attend schools
d) He believed that all pupils are not talented.
5. Why did Aquinas propose a model of education which did not lay much emphasis on facts?
a) Facts are not important.
b) Facts do not lead to holistic education
c) Facts change with the changing times
d) Facts are frozen in time.
6. During which period was the education system focused on Religious nature?
a) Ancient period
b) Medieval period
c) Modern times
d) None of the above
7. During which period there was a shift from the conventional education system?
a) Aristotle period
b) 360 B.C
d) Medieval period
8. Which philosopher had felt that a blend of theory and practice could be a better education
c) De Magistro
d) Michel de Montaigne
Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, where her father was a Profession of Physics. At an early
age, she displayed a brilliant mind and a blithe personality. Her great exuberance for learning prompted
her to continue with her studies after high school. She became disgruntled, however, when she learned
that the university in Warsaw was closed to women. Determined to receive a higher education, she
defiantly left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne, a French University where she earned her
master’s degree and decorate in Physics.
Marie was fortunate to have studied at the Sorbonne with some of the greatest scientists of her day,
one of the women who was married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the
physics laboratory. A short time after they discovered radium. Pierre was killed by a horse-drawn wagon
in 1906. Marie was stunned by this horrible misfortune and endured heartbreaking anguish.
Despondently, she recalled their close relationship and the joy that they had shared in scientific
research. The fact that she had two young daughters to raise by herself greatly increased her distress.
Curie’s feeling of desolation finally began to fade when she was asked to succeed her husband as a
physics professor at the Sorbonne. She was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world-
famous university. In 1911, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for isolation radium. Although
Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from her long exposure to radium, she never became
disillusioned about her work. Regardless of the consequences, she had dedicated herself to science and
to revealing the mysteries of the physical world.
1. According to the passage why did Marie’s distress increase?
a) Because she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed to women.
b) Because she had two daughters to look after by herself.
c) Because she suffered from a fatal disease.
d) Because her husband was killed.
2. Which of the following options can replace the highlighted word ‘disillusioned’ in the given
Although Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from she never became disillusioned
about her work.
3. Select the most appropriate ANTONYM of the given word. DISGRUNTLED.
4. Select the most appropriate synonym of the given word EXUBERANCE
5. Which among the following options is NOT true about Marie according to the passage?
a) She was the first woman to be appointed as a professor at a world-famous university.
b) She received the Nobel Prize.
c) She was born in Poland.
d) She was killed by a horse-drawn wagon.
6. She had studied and succeeded her husband at
a) Sorbonne, a French University
b) Sorbonne, Poland
7. She was awarded the Nobel prize for her _____
a) In Physics for Radium
b) For research scientist
c) In Chemistry for isolation radium
d) For discovering Radium
8. The misfortune of losing her husband had endowed responsibility with :
a) Being a professor after her husband
b) To care and raise her daughters
c) Dedicated her services to the science world
d) All the above
Mankind’s experience of various evolutionary changes from primitive times to the present day has been
extensive and varied. However, man’s problems were never before as complicated as they seem to be
today. Man’s economic activity centers primarily around a factor of production; its role, therefore, has
been given a lot of importance. It should be useful to have an overall view of the economic history of
man – from the nomadic times to the modern factory system – and study its relevance to the various
labor problems of today.
Initially, the man passed through ‘the hunting and fishing stage’. During this period, his basic needs were
adequately met by Nature. Wild animals, birds, and fruits satisfied his hunger, and his thirst was
quenched by the waters of springs and rivers. Caves gave him shelter and barks of trees were used as
clothing. During this stage of man’s progress of the absence of any economic, political, and social system.
Then came ‘the pastoral stage’, which was marked by a certain amount of economic activity. The
nomadic and migratory nature of man persisted, and, together with his goats and cattle, he moved on
to fresh pastures and meadows. Some conflicts would sometimes take place among herd owners, for,
during this period, the institution of nominal private property ownership was not known.
This stage paves the way for ‘the agricultural stage’ during which the class system began to develop.
There was a small artisan class mostly self-employed, and there were also landed properties or
Zamindars as well as slaves. Thus, arose the feudal system. During the fourth stage of these
developments, ‘the handicrafts stage’, a number of social and economic changes took place which
marked the beginning of the labor problem in the world. The self–sufficient economy of the village
underwent a drastic change. The community of traders and merchants emerged. 7
1. Humanity’s evolution from the primitive stage to the present has been
a) Static and smooth
b) Huge and diversified
c) Always violent
d) Always peaceful
2. ….. “man’s problem were never before as complicated as they seem to be today” means
a) The present times are the best times of humanity
b) The present times are the crucial period for humanity
c) The present times pose much more challenges to humans than the previous times
d) The present times provide much more facilities than the previous times.
3. Why does the author say that labor problems did not exist during ‘the hunting and fishing
a) There was no nation existing at that time
b) There were no economic, political and social system
c) There was no capitalism and market
d) There was no labor
4. “The pastoral stage was marked by a certain amount of economic activity.” How?
a) Humans started migrating and held goat-herds
b) Humans started owning land
c) Conflicts started as humans owned goats
d) Humans started doing agriculture.
5. Which word in the passage means ‘surfaced’?
6. What were the consequences of the Feudal system?
a) The handcrafters become very rich
b) The handicrafts stage led to labor problems
c) The villagers were jobless
d) The beginning of the labor issues and evolving of the traders and merchants.
7. Arrange in the right order:
A) Handicraft stage
B) The hunting and fishing stage
C) Pastoral stage
D) The agricultural stage
b) D,B, A, C
8. The passage over all pictures –
a) The labor issues
b) The stages of man’s development professionally and economically.
c) Wild animals and birds in Nature
d) Nomadic man and modern man.
1. d. The old man was eating food in a wooden bowl. ( because he was served in the wooden bowl)
2 b. Selfish ( was not concerned about the old man)
3. d. Other than those given in the options. ( the old man was not able to eat properly)
4. c. He wanted it for giving food to his mother when she became old.( what the elders do the child follows)
5. a. store ( Preserve means store: opposite and not )
6. d. Too late to be of any use ( a phrase)
7. c. The wooden Bowl ( The story revolves around the wooden bowl 8. a. Remember ( recollect means remember)
1. c.It was located in a building that needed repairs
2. b. He rested in at home and disallowed visitors
3. a. He took the children out to the nearby garden where they could play.
4. d. One of the boys did some mischief to the dog.
5. c. The boy was very badly hurt and his leg started bleeding
6. d. The children became panicky and rushed to the headmaster.
7. a. The doctor had left the dispensary and gone home.
8. d. The continued knock at the door by the headmaster
1. d.Aristotle felt the need for repetition to develop good habits in students; Socrates felt the need to be constantly questioned.( philosophy of Aristotle and Socrates)
2. a.It is not practically applicable. ( difficult in real life)
3. c. Which is of ceaseless importance ( definition )
4. b. He believed people are democratic ( people’s democracy and education)
5. c.Facts change with the changing times ( changing phase of thoughts of men)
6. b.Medieval period ( A shift from religion to principles and reasoning).
7. c.1533-1592 ( ( renaissance period)
8. b. Aristotle ( he believed that theory and practical should go hand in hand)
1. b. Because she had two daughters to look after by herself.( Marie’s distress)
2. c. Disenchanted ( similar meaning of disillusioned)
3. a. Contended (opposite of disgruntled )
4. b. Exhilaration ( Similar meaning of Exuberance)
5. d. She was killed by a horse drawn wagon. ( her husband was killed by the horse drawn wagon)
6. a. Sorbonne, a French University ( her studies and took as professor after her husband’s death)
7. c. In Chemistry for isolation radium ( awarded)
8. d. All the above ( she took care of her children )
1. b. Huge and diversified( has changed with time )
2. c. The present times pose much more challenges to humans than the previous time (man facing more challenges)
3. b . There were no economic, political and social system ( They hunted for themselves)
4. a . Humans started migrating and held goat-herds . ( It is guessed to live a better life)
5. b. Emerged ( other three words are irrelevant)
6. d. The beginning of the labor issues and evolving of the traders and merchants. (artisans, zamindars and slaves were existing)
7. c . B,C,D,A ( mankind started life first hunting and fishing, pastoral, agricultural, then handicraft.)
8. b. The stages of man’s development professionally and economically.( history of mankind)