Important Questions

COLONIALISM AND THE COUNTRYSIDE important Questions for Boards | 1 Mark| 3&8 Marks | CBSE

1 Mark Questions

Question 1.
When was the permanent settlement introduced in Bengal?
(a) 1785
(b) 1764
(c) 1793
(d) 1905

Answer: (c) 1793

Question 2.
Who Introduced Permanent Settlement in Bengal?
(a) Lord Cornwallis
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Curzon
(d) Lord William Bentick

Answer: (a) Lord Cornwallis

Question 3.
When was Fifth Report introduced in the British Parliament?
(a) 1770
(b) 1858
(c) 1813
(d) 1795

Answer: (c) 1813

Question 4.
Life of Paharias of Rajmahal completely dependent upon _______
(a) river
(b) permanent agriculture
(c) forests
(d) Trade

Answer: (c) forests

Question 5.
Who among the following emerged as a danger for Paharis?
(a) Santhal
(b) Bhil
(e) Gujjar
(d) Bekarwal

Answer: (a) Santhal

Question 6.
Damin-i-koh was formed for ________
(a) Santhals
(b) Paharias
(c) British
(d) Zamindari

Answer: (a) Santhals

Question 7.
_______ was the major source of cotton for the British till 1862.
(a) America
(b) India
(c) China
(d) Japan

Answer: (a) America

Question 8.
Damin-i-Koh was the area demarcated for the tribe.
(a) Ho
(b) Santhal
(c) Munda
(d) Junto

Answer: (b) Santhal.

Question 9.
Consider the following options.
1. The fifth report submitted to the British Parliament in 1813 AD.
2. Jotedars were quite powerful.
3. Santhals were a great danger to Paharis.
4. No Zamindari was auctioned in Bengal.
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(e) 2 and 3 only
(d) 3 and 4 only

Answer: (a) 1, 2 and 3

Question 10.
Consider the following statements:
1. Permanent settlement was introduced in 1793 AD.
2. Jotedars were quite powerful.
3. All the Zamindars paid their dues very easily.
4. The ryots came to see the moneylenders as devious and deceitful.
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(e) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (c) 1, 2 and 4

3 Marks Questions

1. What was Permanent Settlement?
Ans. The practice of collecting land revenue introduced by Lord Cornwalis in 1793 is known as permanent settlement. In this system the land was given to landlords (Zamindars) permanently. The amount of revenue had been fixed in permanent settlement.

2. Explain the ryotwari system of revenue.
Ans. The revenue system that was introduced in the Bombay Deccan came to be known as ryotwari. In this system, the revenue was directly settled with the ryot. The average incomes from different types of soil were estimated. The revenue- paying capacity of the ryot was assessed and a proportion of it fixed as the share of the state.

3. What was Deeds of hire?

Ans. When debts mounted the peasants were unable to pay back the loan to the
moneylender. They had no option but to give over all land under their possession, carts and animals to the money lenders. But without animals they could not continue to cultivate. So they took land on rent and animals on hire. Now they had to pay for them which had originally belong ed to them. He had to sign a Deed of hire stating very clearly that these animals and carts did not belong to them.

4. Who were Santhals? What are the two features of their lives?

Do It Yourself (small task to find this answer by yourself)

8 Marks Questions

1. What are the problems of using official sources in writing about the history of peasants? 

Ans. Following are the problems in using official sources in writing about the history of peasants. (i) The official sources reflect only British official concerns and interpretation of all events from the outlook and angles of the English. For example, the Deccan riots commission was specifically asked to judge whether the level of Government revenue demand was the cause of the revolt. (ii)Most of the events, revolts and happening have been presented in a blased manner. (iii)The colonial Government and official had their own political, economic religious, cultural and social interest. They had always tried to present the picture of Indian society, people, tradition, culture and even the achievements. (iv) The sources have been presented and recorded by such clever and naughty people who have intentionally presented things with false evidences also. For example, the Deccan Riot Commission presenting all the findings with such evidences which were utilized to give authencity to the report of the commission. The commission has presented this fabricated fact that the Government demand was not the cause of the peasants anger. It was the moneylenders (again Indian) who were to be blame for such argument is found very frequently in British colonial records. This shows that there was a persistence on the part of the colonial government to admit that popular discontent was ever on account of Government action. (v) Official reports, thus are invaluable sources for the reconstruction of history. But theyhave to be always read carefully and compared with evidence form newspapers, unofficial accounts, legal records and where possible oral sources.

2. What were steps taken by the British East India Company to control the Zamindars? 

Ans. The British East India Company took the following steps mainly to maintain its control over the Zamindars. (i) The zamindar’s troops were disbanded custom duties were abolished. (ii) Their cutcheries (Courts) brought under the supervision of collector appointed by the company. (iii) The power to deliver local judgment was also taken away from zamindars. In fact, zamindars held their control and leadership through local courts and other panchayats. They lost their power to organize local police. Over time, the collectorate emerged as an alternative center of authority, severely restricting what the zamindar could do. (iv) In case a Raja (powerful zamindars) failed to pay the land revenue, a company official was speedily dispatched to his zamindari which explicit instruction “to take charge of the District and to use the most effectual means to destroy all the influence and the authority of the zamindar and his officers. (v) Some of the scholars believe that some trouble creators were also used as tools to reduce the influence of Rajas. For example, when the zamindars dispatched their amlah(collector of revenue or representative of zamindar).Some naughty people used to create problem for zamindars. Some ryots and village headmen jotedars and mandals-were only too happy to see the Zamindar in trouble. The zamindar could therefore not easily assert his power over them

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