Important Questions, Uncategorized

Chapter 9- KINGS AND CHRONICLES: The Mughal Courts | Class 12 History | Important Questions for Boards

1 Marks MCQs

1   Choose the correct statement:-               

          a. Mughals  were from Europe

b. Nadir Shah was the ancestor of Mughals

          c. Mughals were descendants of Turkish Ruler Timur               

          d. Babur was related to Ghenghiz khan from his father side  

ANS

c

   

2       Successor of Babur was :-             

          a. Sher Shah Sur         

          b. Jalaluddin Akbar              

          c. Nasiruddin Humayun                

          d. Jahangir

ANS

c.

3       After 1707 Mughal dynasty was:-                  

          a. Expanded its frontiers to regional powers            

          b. Increase under the rule of Bahadur Shah Zafar II         

         c. Diminished following the death of Aurangzeb

d. In the hands of Aurangzeb who was the last ruler of the Mughal dynasty

ANS

c.

4       Choose the correct statement:              

          a. All the Mughal Chronicles were written in Turkish.              

          b. All the Mughal Chronicles were in Hindavi and regional variants.                  

          c. Mughal Chronicles were written in Sanskrit.

d. Most of the Mughal Chronicles were written in Persian.

ANS

d.

5       Kitabkhana was:               

          a. Publishing history of Mughal empire in a printed form.                 

          b. A scriptorium where the manuscript was produced and its collection was kept.

         c. Only translated books were kept there. 

d. Printing unit of Mughals.

ANS

b.

6       Abul fazl described the painting as:          

          a. Dying art                  

          b. Progressive art                  

          c. Influential art

d. Magical art

ANS

d.

7 The author of Badshah Nama was:           

          a. Abul Fazl                 

          b. Sadullah Khan                  

          c. Abdul Hamid Lahori

d. Prince Salim

ANS

c.

8       Mughal artists began to portray Emperors wearing the halo which means:  

          a. Supremacy of king

b. Beautifying the portraits

c. Divine light    

d. First king of the dynasty

ANS

c.

9 The ideal of Sulh-i-kul was–                 

          a. light emanating from God

b. absolute peace              

c. absolute power of the king

ANS

b.

10     The ideal of farr-i izadi was-                  

          a. light emanating from God

b. absolute peace 

c. absolute power of the king

ANS

a.

11     Hierarchy of females in the imperial household was-               

          a. Aghas, Aghacha & Begums       

b. Begums, Aghas & Aghacha

c. Aghas, Begums & Aghacha       

d. Begums, Aghacha & Agha

ANS

b.

12     The bazaar of Chandni Chowk was designed by –            

         a) Jahanara

b) Nur Jahan

c) Roshanara

d) Gulbadan Begum

ANS

a.

   

13 Mansabs comprising two numerical designations:           

          a) Zat & Pat        b) Zat & Sawar a) Mat & Pat       d) Mat & Sawar

ANS

b.

14     The first Jesuit mission reached the Mughal court at:                

          a) Agra       b) Multan         c) Fatehpur Sikri          d) Lahore

ANS

c.

One Word Answer

1. Babur wrote poetry in _______________________ language.

ANS

Turkish तुर्की

2. In the 1570s, Akbar decided to build a new capital named ___________.

ANS

Fatehpur Sikri

3. In the reign of Aurangzeb, the jizya tax was reimposed on non-Muslim subjects (True/False) –

ANS

True

4. The Asiatic Society of Bengal, founded by Sir Henry Beveridge in 1784

ANS

False

5. Jharokha darshan was introduced by——— with the objective of broadening the acceptance of the imperial authority as of popular faith.

ANS

Akbar

3 Marks Questions

1. Assess the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire.

1. मुगल साम्राज्य में शाही परिवार की महिलाओं द्वारा निभाई गई भूमिका का आकलन करें।

The role played by the women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire

(i) In the Mughal household a distinction was maintained between wives who came from royal families (Begams) and other wives(aghas) who were not of noble birth.

(ii) Apart from wives numerous male and female slaves populated the Mughal household: The tasks they performed varied from the most mundane to those requiring skill tact and intelligence.

(iii) After NurJahan Mughal queens and princesses began to control significant financial resources.  Shahjahan’s daughter Jahanara and Roshanara enjoyed an annual income often equal to the high imperial mansabdars. Jahanara in addition received revenues from the port city of Surat, which was a lucrative center of overseas trade.

2. Write a short note on Badshah Nama.

2. बादशाहनामा पर एक संक्षिप्त नोट लिखें।

Ans. Badshah Nama Chronicle of a king based on the history of Shahjahan’s reign is an Important chronicle among official histories. Abdul Hamid Lahori, a pupil of Abul Fazal is known as its author. It is modeled of 10 lunar years each. Lahori wrote the first and second daftars comprising of the first two decades of Shahjahan’s reign (1627-1647) But due to infirmities of age he was unable to write the 3rd volume. The volume of the 3rd decade of the emperor’s rule was chronicled by historian waris. In 1944 the first time paintings of Badshah Nama were exhibited in New Delhi, London, and Washington.

4. What is Sulh-i-Kul?

a) Akbar’s Religious Policy.

b) Sulh-i-Kul means absolute peace.

In this ideal emperor was the source of all peace and stability, stood above all religious and ethnic groups, insured justice and peace.

5. What was meant by ‘Kitabkhana’?

a) Kitab Khana means a place where the different process of production of books like making paper, printing, binding, etc. were done.

b) It was a place where the emperor’s collection of Manuscripts was kept and produced.

7. Describe in brief the ideal of Din-i-Ilahi.

a) Introduced by Akbar as the state religion.

b) God is one and Akbar is the representative of the prophet.

c) To Utter-Allah-Hu-Akbar.

d) The followers deemed the fire as sacred and worshipped the Sun God.

e) Vegetarian followers.

f) They looked upon all religions with a sense of respect.

g) Performed their obituaries during their lifetime.

8. What was the composition of the ruling class in India during the Mughal Period?

a) Mughal nobility was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious groups.

b) It was like a bouquet of flowers.

c) Turani, Irani, Rajput, Indian Muslims.

9. Write in brief about the Mughal Provincial administration.

The Head of the provincial government was – governor.

a. He reported directly to the emperor.

b. Provinces (Subas) were divided into Sarkar.

c. Sarkars into parganas under – qanungo, chaudhary and qazi.

d. Each department was supported by official staff.

10. Write in brief about the Religious Policy of Akbar.

Akbar believed in the equality of all religious.

a) Secular outlook.

b) Interaction with people of different faiths.

c) Freedom to all religious sects.

d) Grants and support to all religions.

e) Introduced Sulh-i-Kul.

11. Describe the process of manuscript production in the Mughal court.

Process of manuscript production in the Mughal court included the following:
(a) Paper-maker’s responsibility was to prepare the folios of the manuscript.
(b) Skill writer, i.e. scribes or calligrapher copied the texts.
(c) Guilders, illuminated the pages of the manuscript.
(d) Miniature painter illustrated the scene from the text.
(e) The book binders gathered the folio and gave it to the original shape of a book.

12. What were the concerns that shaped Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the subcontinent?
(i) The Safavids and Qandahar: The political and diplomatic relations between , the Mughal kings and the neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan hinged on the control of the frontier defined by the Hindukush mountains that separated Afghanistan from the regions of Iran and Central Asia. A constant aim of Mughal policy was to ward off this potential danger by controlling strategic outposts – notably Kabul and Qandahar. The fortress-town Qandahar had initially been in the possession of Humayun, reconquered in 1595 by Akbar.The Safavid court retained diplomatic relations with the Mughals, it continued to stake.claims to Qandahar. Jahangir sent a diplomatic envoy to the court of Shah Abbas in 1613 to plead the Mughal case for retaining Qandahar, but the mission failed to achieve its objectives. Persian army besieged Qandahar in 1622. The Mughal garrison was defeated and had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.

(ii) The Ottomans: pilgrimage and trade: The relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans ensured free movement for merchants and pilgrims in the territories under Ottoman control. This was especially true for the Hijaz, that part of Ottoman Arabia where the important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located.
The Mughal emperor combined religion and commerce by exporting essential goods to Aden and Mokha, and distributing the proceeds of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and religious men there.

(iii) Jesuits at the Mughal court: European received knowledge about India through the accounts of Jesuit missionaries, travellers, merchants and diplomats. After the discovery of sea route to India, the Portuguese merchants set up their trading network stations in coastal region. The Portuguese was also interested in the spread of Christianity with the help of the missionaries of the Society of Jesuits. The Christian missions who sent to India during the sixteenth century were part of this process of trade and empire building. The first Jesuit mission reached the Mughal court of Mughal emperor Akbar at Fatehpur oikri in 1580 and stayed here for about two years. The Jesuits spoke to Akbar about Christianity and debated its virtues with the ulema. Two more missions were sent to the Mughal court at Lahore, in 1591 and 1595. The Jesuit accounts are based on personal observation and shed light on the character and mind of the emperor. At public assemblies the Jesuits were assigned places in close proximity to Akbar’s throne.. The Jesuit accounts corroborate the information given in Persian chronicles about state officials and the general conditions of life in Mughal times.

13. Analyse the reasons for the frequent shifting of the capital cities of the Mughals during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Reasons for the frequent shifting of the capital cities of the Mughals during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

i. Agra-the 1560s Akbar had the fort of Agra constructed with red sandstone quarried from the adjoining regions

ii. Fatehpur Sikri-One of the reasons prompting this may have been that Sikri was located on the direct road to Ajmer, where the dargah of Shaikh Muinuddin Chishti had become an important pilgrimage centre.

iii. Lahore – In 1585 the capital was transferred to Lahore to bring the north- west under greater control and Akbar closely watched the frontier for thirteen years.

iv. Shahjahanabad- It was a new addition to the old residential city of Delhi, with the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, a tree-lined esplanade with bazaars (Chandni Chowk) and spacious homes for the nobility. Shah Jahan’s new city was appropriate to a more formal vision of a grand monarchy

14. Abu’l Fazl had shaped and articulated the ideas associated with the reign of Akbar. Substantiate the statement in the context Mughal court.Mughal court  

i. The physical arrangement of the court, focused on the  sovereign, mirrored his status as the heart of society.  ii. The throne gave physical form to the function of the  sovereign as axis mundi.  

iii. The canopy was believed to separate the radiance of  the sun from that of the sovereign.  

iv. In court, status was determined by spatial proximity to  the king.  

v. The place accorded to a courtier by the ruler was a sign  of his importance in the eyes of the emperor.  

vi. Once the emperor sat on the throne, no one was  permitted to move  

vii. After spending an hour at the jharoka, the emperor  walked to the public hall of audience (diwan-i am)  toconduct the primary business of his government.  

viii. State officials presented reports and made requests.

ix. diwan-i khas to hold private audiences and discuss  confidential matters. High ministers of state placed  their petitions before him  

x. Occasionally, the emperor viewed the works of highly  reputed artists or building plans of architects  

xi. Id, Shab-i barat and Holi, the court was full of life.  Perfumed candles set in rich holders and palace  walls

15. Explain the concept of ideal kingdom in reference with Mughal Empire?

  1. Divine Light: Abu’lFazl placed Mughal kingship as the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light emanating from God (farr-iizadi). He was inspired by a famous Iranian sufi, ShihabuddinSuhrawardi (d. 1191) who first developed the idea. of a hierarchy in which the Divine Light was transmitted to the king who then became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects.
  2. Absolute Peace: Mughal chronicles present the empire as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities. Abu’lFazl describes the ideal of sulh-ikul(absolute peace) as the cornerstone of enlightened rule. In sulh-ikul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves.
  3. Sovereignty: Abu’lFazl defined sovereignty as a social contract: the emperor protects the four essences of his subjects, namely, life (jan), property (mal), honour (namus) and faith (din), and in return demands obedience and a share of resources.

16. Why Zamindars defaulted on payments?

Ans. The reasons for this failure were various-

(i) The initial demands of tax were very high, because the company felt that if the demand was fixed for all time to come they would never be able to claim for high shares in the condition of increased income.

(ii) This high demand was imposed in the 1790s, a time when the prices of agricultural produce were depressed, making it difficult for the ryots to pay their dues to the zamindar. If the Zamindar could not collect the rent, how could he pay the company?

(iii) The revenue was invariable, regardless of the harvest, and had to be paid punctually.

(iv) The permanent settlement initially limited the power of the Zamindars to collect rent from the ryot and manage his zamindari.

17. Why did the Santhals revolted against the British rule?

Ans. The Santhals were revolted against the British rule due to following reasons-

(i) The land that Santhals had brought under cultivatio n was slipping away from their hands.

(ii) The state was levying heavy taxes on the land that the Santhals had cleared, money lenders (dikus) were charging them high rates of interest.

(iii) Moneylenders were taking over the land from Santhals when debts remained unpaid, and Zamindars were asserting control over the Damin – i – koh area.

(iv) By the 1850s, the Santhals felt that the time had come to rebel against Zamindars, money lenders and the colonial state in order to create an ideal world for themselves where they would rule. It was after the Santhal Revolt (1855-56) that the Santhal  Pargana  was  created,  carving  out 5,500 sq. miles from the districts of Bhagalpur and Birbhum.

18. Discuss about the life of hill folk of Rajmahal hills, Paharia.

Ans(i)  Paharias lived around the Rajmahal hills, subsisting on forest produce and practicing shifting cultivation.

(ii) They cleared patches of forest by cutting bushes and burning the undergrowth on these patches, enriched by the potash from the ash, the Paharias grew a variety of pulses and millets for consumption.

(iii) They scratched the ground lightly with hoes, cultivated the cleared land for few years, then left it fallow so that it could recover its fertility, and moved to a new area.

(iv) From the forests they collected Mahua (a flower) for food, silk cocoons and resin for sale, and wood for charcoal production. The life of the Paharis –  as hunters shifting cultivators, food gatherers, charcoal producers, silkworm rearers – was thus intimately connected to the forest.

8 Marks Questions

1. Discuss the merits and demerits of the Mansabdari Sytem.

Merits of the Mansabdari System

1. Control on revolts.

2. Qualification as basis of ranks.

3. Ban on Corruption

4. Forceful army

5. Emotional unity

Demerits of Mansabdari System

1. Misuse of money

2. Disloyalty of the soldiers towards the empire

3. Luxurious life of mansabdars

4. High salary of mansabdars created pressure on govt.

5. Less number of horsemen than the prescribed number affected the effectiveness of military.

6. Lack of direct link between emperor and soldiers

2. Discuss the major features of Mughal provincial administration. How did the centre control the provinces ?

  1. The Mughal provincial administration was like the central administration as mentioned below :
    1. There were diwan, bakhshi and sadr corresponding the central ministers – Diwan-i ala, mir-bakshi and sadr-us sudur.
    1. The head of the provincial administration was the governor (subadar) who directly reported to the emperor.
    1. A suba was divided into sarkars.
    1. Faujdars were deployed with contingents of heavy cavalry and musketeers in districts.
    1. At the local level were parganas which were looked after by the qanungo (keeper of revenue records), the chaudhuri (in charge of revenue collection) and the qazi.
    1. There was clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers and other functionaries who were technically qualified officials. They functioned with standardised rules and procedures.
    1. Persian was the language of the administration but local languages were used for village accounts.
  2. The Mughal emperor and his court controlled the entire administrative apparatus down to the village level. However, the relationship between local landed magnates, the zamindars, and the representatives of the Mughal emperor was sometimes marked by conflicts over authority and a share of the resources. Moreover, after the death of Aurangzeb the provincial governors became powerful and this led to the downfall of the Mughal Empire.

3. Discuss, with examples, the distinctive features of Mughal chronicles.

3. उदाहरणों के साथ चर्चा करें, मुगल इतिहास की विशिष्ट विशेषताएं।


(i) Chronicles commissioned by the Mughal emperors are an important source for studying the empire and its court. They were written in order to project a vision of an enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella. The authors of Mughal chronicles focused on events-related to life of the ruler, their family, the court and nobles, wars and administrative system.

(ii) These chronicles were written in Persian. This language flourished as a language of the court and of literary writings, alongside north Indian languages, especially Hindavi and its regional variants. As the Mughals were Chaghtai Turks by origin, Turkish was their mother tongue.

(iii) Chronicles narrating the events of a Mughal emperor’s reign contained, alongside the written text, images that described an event in visual form.

(iv) When scenes or themes in a book were to be given visual expression, the scribe left blank spaces on nearby pages; paintings, executed separately by artists, were inserted to accompany what was; described in words.

4. What were the distinctive features of the Mughal nobility? How was their relationshipwith the emperor shaped?


Recruitment, rank of the n ability and relationship with the emperor:
(i) Mughal chronicles, especially the Akbar Nama, have bequeathed a vision of empire in which agency rests almost solely with the emperor, while the rest of the kingdom has been portrayed as following his orders, if we look more closely at the available information the histories provide us about the apparatus of the Mughal state, we may be able to understand the ways in which the imperial organisation was dependent on several different institutions.

(ii) The most important pillar of the Mughal state was the nobility. The nobility was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious group which ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state.

(iii) The officer corps of the Mughals was described as a bouquet of flowers (guldasta) held together by loyalty to the emperor. In Akbar’s imperial service, Turani and Iranian nobles were present from the earliest phase of carving out a political dominion. Many had accompanied Humayun; others migrated later to the Mughal court.

(iv) The holders of government offices was given the ranks (mansabs) comprising two numerical designations: zat which was an indicator of position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of the official (mansabdar), and sawar which indicated the number of horsemen he was required to maintain in service.

(v) Akbar, who designed the mansab system, also established spiritual relationships with a select band of his nobility by treating them as his disciples (murid).

(vi) For members of the nobility, imperial service was a way of acquiring power, wealth and the highest possible reputation. A person wishing to join the service petitioned through a noble, who presented a tajwiz to the emperor.

(vii) If the applicant was found suitable, a mansab was granted to him. The mir bakhshi (paymaster general) stood in open court on the right of the emperor and presented all candidates for appointment or promotion, while his office prepared orders bearing his seal and signature as well as those of the emperor. There were two other important ministers at the centre: the diwan-i ai (finance minister) and sadr-us sudur (minister of grants or madad-i maash, and in charge of appointing local judges or qazis)

(viii) The three ministers occasionally came together as an advisory body, but were independent of each other.

(xi) Akbar with these and other advisers shaped the administrative, fiscal and monetary institutions of the empire. Nobles stationed at the court (tainat-i rakab) were a reserve force to be deputed to a province or military campaign. Nobles were duty-bound to appear twice a day to express submission their to the emperor.
(x) They also had to share the responsibility for guarding the emperor and his household round the clock.

5. Identify the elements that went into the making of the Mughal ideal of kingship.

(i) According to Akbars court poet, Abu’l Fazl Mughal kingship as the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light emanating from God (farr-i- izadi). According to this idea, there was a Hierarchy in which the Divine Light was transmitted to the king (Mughal Emperor) who then became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects.

(ii) Mughal chronicles present the empire as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities – Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims. As the source of all peace and stability, the emperor stood above all religious and ethnic groups, mediated among them, and ensured that justice and peace prevailed.

(iii) Abu’l Fazl describes the ideal of sulh-i kui (absolute peace) as the cornerstone of enlightened rule. In sulh-i kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves The ideal of sulh-i kul was implemented through state policies – the nobility under the Mughals was a composite one comprising Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, Qeccanis – all of whom were given positions and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king.

(iv) Akbar abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 and jizya in 1564 as the two were based on religious discrimination. Instructions were sent to officers of the empire to follow the concept of sulh-i kul.

(v) All Mughal emperors gave grants to support the buildings and maintenance of places of worship. However, it was during the reign of Auranzeb, the jizya was re¬imposed on non-Muslim subjects.

(vi) Abu’l Fazl defined sovereignty as a social contract. According to him the emperor protects the four essences of subjects, namely, life (jan), property (mal), honour (narnus) and faith (din), and in return demands obedience and a share of resources from the people. Only sovereigns were thought to be able to honour the contract with power and Divine guidance.

6. Describe the daily routine and special festivities associated with the Mughal Court.

(a) Physical arrangement of the court, focused on the sovereign and status.

(b) The throne (Takht) was the center of power.

(c) In court, status was determined by spatial proximity to the king.

(d) Social control in court society.

(e) The forms of salutation to the ruler.

(f) The protocols government diplomatic envoys at the Mughal Court were equally explicit.

(g) The day began with personal religious devotions then Jharokha Darshan.

(h) After that conduct of primary business of his government.

 (i) Discuss the confidential matters.

(j) Celebration of festivals.

7. Explain why the nobility was recruited from different races and religious groups by the Mughal rulers in India.

Nobility was recruited from different races and religious groups by the Mughal rulers in India

i. The nobility was recruited from diverse ethnic and religious groups.

ii. This ensured that no faction was large enough to challenge the authority of the state.

iii. The officer corps of the Mughals was described as a bouquet of flowers (guldasta) held together by loyalty to the emperor.

iv. In Akbar’s imperial service, Turani and Iranian nobles were present from the time of Humayun.

v. People from many races have sought refuge in the imperial court.

vi. Men with knowledge and skills as well as warriors were the part of nobility.

vii. Rajputs and Indian Muslims entered the imperial services during the time of Akbar.

viii. Iranian gained high offices under Jahangir.

ix. Aurangeb appointed Rajputs to highest position.

x. Rajput clans as well as the Mughals marriage was an another way of cementing political relationships and forging alliances.

xi. The Marathas accounted for a sizeable number within the body of officers.

xii. The ideal of sulh-ikul was implemented through state policies.

xiii. The nobility under the Mughals was a composite one comprising Iranis, Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs, Deccanis – all of whom were given positions and awards purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king.

xiv. The nobles participated in military campaigns with their armies and also served as officers of the empire in the provinces

xv. The nobles were mansabdars of Mughal rulers.

xvi. The mansabdars had two numerical designations: zat which was an indicator of position in the imperial hierarchy, and sawar.

xvii. For members of the nobility, imperial service was a way of acquiring power, wealth and the highest possible reputation. For example mirbakhshi, diwan-i-alam, and sadr-us sudur.

xviii. Members of Hindu castes inclined towards education and accountancy were also promoted, a famous example being Akbar’s finance minister, Raja Todar Mal, who belonged to the Khatri caste.

8. Explain the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire.

The Role played by Women of the Imperial Household

i. The Mughal household consisted of the emperor’s wives and concubines, his near and distant relatives and female servants and slaves.

ii. The term “harem” means a sacred place is frequently used to refer to the domestic world of the Mughals.

iii. Polygamy was practiced.

iv. The gift of territory was often accompanied by the gift of a daughter in marriage.

v. Hierarchical relationship between ruling groups continued.

vi. A distinction was maintained between wives who came from royal families (begams), and other wives (aghas) who were not of noble birth.

vii. The begams, married after receiving huge amounts of cash and valuables as dower (mahr), naturally received a higher status and greater attention from their husbands than did aghas.

viii. The concubines (aghacha or the lesser agha) occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy

ix. They all received monthly allowances in cash, supplemented with gifts according to their status.

x. The lineage- based family structure was not entirely static.

xi. The agha and the aghacha could rise to the position of a begam depending on the husband’s will.

xii. Love and motherhood played important roles in elevating status.

xiii. Apart from wives, numerous male and female slaves populated the Mughal household.

xiv. Slave eunuchs (khwajasara) moved between the external and internal life of the household as guards, servants, and also as agents for women dabbling in commerce.

xv. After NurJahan, Mughal queens and princesses began to control significant financial resources.

xvi. Shah Jahan’s daughters Jahanara and Roshanara enjoyed an annual income often equal to that of high imperial mansabdars.

xvii. Jahanara received revenues from the port city of Surat.

xviii. Control over resources enabled important women of the Mughal household to commission buildings and gardens.

xix. The Humayun Nama was written by Gulbadan Begum on imperial household

xx. Gulbadan described in great detail the conflicts and tensions among the princes and kings and the important mediating role elderly womenof the family played in resolving some of these conflicts.

xxi. Jahanara designed the bazaar of Chandni Chowk, the throbbing centre of Shahjahanabad.

9. Analyze the importance and limitations of Ain –i-Akbari as a source of Akbars reign.

A. Importance

i. The Ain gives detailed accounts of the organization of the court, administration and army, the sources of revenue and the physical layout of the provinces and the literary, cultural and religious traditions of the people.

ii. Along with a description of the various departments of Akbar’s government and elaborate descriptions of the various provinces (subas) of the empire

iii. TheAin gives us intricate quantitative information of those provinces.

iv. The Ain is therefore a mine of information for us about the Mughal Empire during Akbar’s reign.

v. The Ain is made up of five books (daftars), of which the first three books describe the administration.

vi. The first book, called manzil-abadi, concerns the imperial Household and its maintenance.

vii. The second book, sipah-abadi, covers the military and civil administration and the establishment of servants.

viii. The third book, mulk-abadi, is the one which deals with the fiscal side

B. limitations of Ain-i- Akbari

i. Numerouserrors in totaling have been detected. These areascribed to simple slips of arithmetic or of transcription by Abu’l Fazl’s assistants.

ii. Ain is the somewhatskewed nature of the quantitative data.

iii. Data werenot collected uniformly from all provinces.

iv. For many subas detailed information was compiled about the caste composition of the zamindars such information is not available forBengal and Orissa.

v. Vital parameters such as prices and wagesfrom these areas are not as well documented except Agra.

vi. It has limited relevance for the rest ofthe country.

10. In what ways would the daily routine and special festivities associated with the Mughal court have conveyed a sense of the power of the emperor

Ans: The daily routine and special festivities associated with the Mughal court would have conveyed a sense of the power of the emperor in the following ways :

1.The emperor, after personal religious prayers, appeared on a small balcony for Jharoka darshan, before a crowd of people for darshan of the emperor. The Jharoka darshan was introduced by Akbar with the objective of broadening the acceptance of the imperial authority as part of the popular faith.

2.The focus of the physical arrangement of the court was on the sovereign. It mirrored his status as the heart of society. Its centrepiece was, therefore, the throne, the takht which gave physical form to the function of the sovereign as pillar.

3.The rules regarding status of the Mughal elites were laid down with great precision. In court, status was determined by spatial proximity to the emperor.

4.Once the emperor sat on the throne, no one was permitted to move from his position or to leave without permission.

5.Whenever the court or darbar was held, all who had admittance were required to make the kornish.

6.The forms of salutation to the ruler indicated the persons status in the hierarchy. Deeper prostration represented higher status.

The diplomatic envoys like ambassador were expected to offer an acceptable form of greeting

7.either by bowing deeply or kissing the ground or else to follow the Persian custom of clasping ones hands in front of the chest.

8.Special occasions such as Id, Shab-i barat anniversary of accession to the throne, festivals the solar and lunar birthdays of the monarch were celebrated in such a way that left tremendous impression on visitors

9.Grand titles were adopted by the Mughal emperors at the time of coronation or after a victory over an enemy.

10.Mughal coins carried the full title of the reigning emperor with regal protocal.

A courtier always approached the emperor with gifts. He generally offered a small sum of money (nazr) or a large amount (peshkash).

11.Even in diplomatic relations, gifts were regarded as a sign of honour and respect.

12.Even in diplomatic relations, gifts were regarded as a sign of honour and respect.

Q. 11.Assess the role played by women of the imperial household in the Mughal Empire

Ans: (i) The term haram is used to describe the domestic world of the Mughals. This word is taken from the Persian word haram, which means a sacred place.

(ii) The Mughal household consisted of the emperors wives and concubines, his near and distant relatives (mother, step- and foster-mothers, sisters, daughters, daughters-in-law, aunts, children, etc.), and female servants and slaves.

(iii) Polygamy was practised widely in the Indian subcontinent, especially among the ruling groups. Both for the Rajput clans as well as the Mughals marriage was a way of cementing political relationships and forging alliances.

(iv) The gift of territory was often accompanied by the gift of a daughter in marriage. This ensured a continuing hierarchical relationship between ruling groups. It was through the link of marriage and the relationships that developed as a result that the Mughals were able to form a vast kinship network that linked them to important groups and helped to hold a vast empire together.

(v) In the Mughal household a distinction was maintained between wives who came from royal families (begams), and other wives (aghas) who were not of noble birth.

(vi) The begams, married after receiving huge amounts of cash and valuables as dowry (maahr), naturally received a higher status and greater attention from their husbands than did aghas. The concubines (aghacha or the lesser agha) occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy of females intimately related to royalty.

vi) The begams, married after receiving huge amounts of cash and valuables as dowry (maahr), naturally received a higher status and greater attention from their husbands than did aghas. The concubines (aghacha or the lesser agha) occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy of females intimately related to royalty.

Q. 12.What were the concerns that shaped Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the subcontinent?

Ans: (i) The Safavids and Qandahar: The political and diplomatic relations between , the Mughal kings and the neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan hinged on the control of the frontier defined by the Hindukush mountains that separated Afghanistan from the regions of Iran and Central Asia. A constant aim of Mughal policy was to ward off this potential danger by controlling strategic outposts notably Kabul and Qandahar. The fortress-town Qandahar had initially been in the possession of Humayun, reconquered in 1595

Akbar.The Safavid court retained diplomatic relations with the Mughals, it continued to stake.claims to Qandahar. Jahangir sent a diplomatic envoy to the court of Shah Abbas in 1613 to plead the Mughal case for retaining Qandahar, but the mission failed to achieve its objectives. Persian army besieged Qandahar in 1622. The Mughal garrison was defeated and had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.

II. The Ottomans: pilgrimage and trade: The relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans ensured free movement for merchants and pilgrims in the territories under Ottoman control. This was especially true for the Hijaz, that part of Ottoman Arabia where the important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located.

The Mughal emperor combined religion and commerce by exporting essential goods to Aden and Mokha, and distributing the proceeds of the sales in charity to the keepers of shrines and religious men there.

III.Jesuits at the Mughal court: European received knowledge about India through the accounts of Jesuit missionaries, travellers, merchants and diplomats. After the discovery of sea route to India, the Portuguese merchants set up their trading network stations in coastal region. The Portuguese was also interested in the spread of Christianity with the help of the missionaries of the Society of Jesuits. The Christian missions who sent to India during the sixteenth century were part of this process of trade and empire building. The first Jesuit mission reached the Mughal court of Mughal emperor Akbar at Fatehpur oikri in 1580 and stayed here for about two years. The Jesuits spoke to Akbar about Christianity and debated its virtues with the ulema. Two more missions were sent to the Mughal court at Lahore, in 1591 and 1595. The Jesuit accounts are based on personal.

Q. 13.Discuss the major features of Mughal provincial administration. How did the centre control the provinces ?

Ans: The Mughal provincial administration was like the central administration as mentioned below :

There were diwan, bakhshi and sadr corresponding the central ministers Diwan-i ala, mir-bakshi and sadr-us sudur.

The head of the provincial administration was the governor (subadar) who directly reported to the emperor.

A suba was divided into sarkars.

Faujdars were deployed with contingents of heavy cavalry and musketeers in districts.

At the local level were parganas which were looked after by the qanungo (keeper of revenue records), the chaudhuri (in charge of revenue collection) and the qazi.

At the local level were parganas which were looked after by the qanungo (keeper of revenue records), the chaudhuri (in charge of revenue collection) and the qazi.

There was clerks, accountants, auditors, messengers and other functionaries who were technically qualified officials. They functioned with standardised rules and procedures.

Persian was the language of the administration but local languages were used for village accounts.

2.The Mughal emperor and his court controlled the entire administrative apparatus down to the village level. However, the relationship between local landed magnates, the zamindars, and the representatives of the Mughal emperor was sometimes marked by conflicts over authority and a share of the resources. Moreover, after the death of Aurangzeb the provincial governors became powerful and this led to the downfall of the Mughal Empire.

Q. 14. Discuss, with examples, the distinctive features of Mughal chronicles.

Ans: (i) Chronicles commissioned by the Mughal emperors are an important source for studying the empire and its court. They were written in order to project a vision of an enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella. The authors of

Mughal chronicles focused on events-related to life of the ruler, their family, the court and nobles, wars and administrative

system.

(ii) These chronicles were written in Persian This language flourished as a language of the court and of literary writings, alongside north Indian languages, especially Hindavi and its regional variants. As the Mughals were Chaghtai Turks by origin, Turkish was their mother tongue.

III) Chronicles narrating the events of a Mughal emperors reign contained, alongside the written text, images that described an event in visual form.

(iv) When scenes or themes in a book were to be given visual expression, the scribe left blank spaces on nearby pages; paintings, executed separately by artists, were inserted to accompany what was; described in words.

Q. 15.Identify the elements that went into the making of the Mughal ideal of kingship.

Ans: (i) According to Akbars court poet, Abul Fazl Mughal kingship as the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light emanating from God (farr-i- izadi). According to this idea, there was a Hierarchy in which the Divine Light was transmitted to the king (Mughal Emperor) who then became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects.

II) Mughal chronicles present the empire as comprising many different ethnic and religious communities Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims. As the source of all peace and stability, the emperor stood above all religious and ethnic groups, mediated among them, and ensured that justice and peace prevailed.

III.  Abul Fazl describes the ideal of sulh-i kui (absolute peace) as the cornerstone of enlightened rule. In sulh-i kul all religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves The ideal of sulh-i kul was implemented through state policies .

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